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    National name:
      Stato della Cittą del Vaticano
    Ruler:
      Eduardo Cardinal Martķnez Somalo (acting)
    Area:
      0.17 sq mi (0.44 sq km)
    Population (July 2003 est.):
      911
    Density per sq mi:
      5,362
    Monetary unit:
      Euro
    Languages:
      Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
    Ethnicity/race:
      Italian, Swiss, other
    Religion:
      Roman Catholic
    Labour force:
      Dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live outside the Vatican
    Budget (2001):
      Revenues: $173.5 million; expenditures: $176.6 million, including capital expenditures
    Radio broadcast stations:
      AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 2 (1998)
    Television broadcast stations:
      1 (1996)
    Transportation: Railways:
      Total: 0.86 km; note: connects to Italy's network at Rome's Saint Peter's station (2001)
    Transportation: Highways:
      None; all city streets
    Transportation: Ports and harbours:
      None
    Transportation: Airports:
      None
    Transportation: Heliports:
      1 (2002)
    International disputes:
      None


    the pope


    Full List of Popes

    1. St. Peter (b. Bethsaida) | 42? 67?
    2. St. Linus (b. Tuscia) | c. 67 76
    3. St. Anacletus (Cletus) (b. Rome) | 76 88
    4. St. Clement (b. Rome) | 88 97
    5. St. Evaristus (b. Greece) | 97 105
    6. St. Alexander I (b. Rome) | 105 115
    7. St. Sixtus I (b. Rome) | 115 125
    8. St. Telesphorus (b. Greece) | 125 136
    9. St. Hyginus (b. Greece) | 136 140
    10. St. Pius I (b. Aquileia) | 140 155
    11. St. Anicetus (b. Syria) | 155 166
    12. St. Soter (b. Campania) | 166 175
    13. St. Eleutherius (b. Epirus) | 175 189
    14. St. Victor I (b. Africa) | 189 199
    15. St. Zephyrinus (b. Rome) | 199 217
    16. St. Callistus I (b. Rome) | 217 222
    17. St. Urban I (b. Rome) | 222 230
    18. St. Pontian (b. Rome) | 230 235
    19. St. Anterus (b. Greece) | 235 236
    20. St. Fabian (b. Rome) | 236 250
    21. St. Cornelius (b. Rome) | 251 253
    22. St. Lucius I (b. Rome) | 253 254
    23. St. Stephen I (b. Rome) | 254 257
    24. St. Sixtus II (b. Greece) | 257 258
    25. St. Dionysius (Unknown) | 259 268
    26. St. Felix I (b. Rome) | 269 274
    27. St. Eutychian (b. Luni) | 275 283
    28. St. Caius (b. Dalmatia) | 283 296
    29. St. Marcellinus (b. Rome) | 296 304
    30. St. Marcellus I (b. Rome) | 308 309
    31. St. Eusebius (b. Greece) | 309 310
    32. St. Meltiades (b. Africa) | 311 314
    33. St. Sylvester I (b. Rome) | 314 335
    34. St. Marcus (b. Rome) | 336 336
    35. St. Julius I (b. Rome) | 337 352
    36. Liberius (b. Rome) | 352 366
    37. St. Damasus I (b. Spain) | 366 384
    38. St. Siricius (b. Rome) | 384 399
    39. St. Anastasius I (b. Rome) | 399 401
    40. St. Innocent I (b. Albano) | 401 417
    41. St. Zozimus (b. Greece) | 417 418
    42. St. Boniface I (b. Rome) | 418 422
    43. St. Celestine I (b. Campania) | 422 432
    44. St. Sixtus III (b. Rome) | 432 440
    45. St. Leo I (the Great) (b. Tuscany) | 440 461
    46. St. Hilary (b. Sardinia) | 461 468
    47. St. Simplicius (b. Tivoli) | 468 483
    48. St. Felix III (II)2 (b. Rome) | 483 492
    49. St. Gelasius I (b. Africa) | 492 496
    50. Anastasius II (b. Rome) | 496 498
    51. St. Symmachus (b. Sardinia) | 498 514
    52. St. Hormisdas (b. Frosinone) | 514 523
    53. St. John I (b. Tuscany) | 523 526
    54. St. Felix IV (III) (b. Samnium) | 526 530
    55. Boniface II (b. Rome) | 530 532
    56. John II (b. Rome) | 533 535
    57. St. Agapitus I (b. Rome) | 535 536
    58. St. Silverius (b. Campania) | 536 537
    59. Vigilius (b. Rome) | 537 555
    60. Pelagius I (b. Rome) | 556 561
    61. John III (b. Rome) | 561 574
    62. Benedict I (b. Rome) | 575 579
    63. Pelagius II (b. Rome) | 579 590
    64. St. Gregory I (the Great) (b. Rome) | 590 604
    65. Sabinianus (b. Tuscany) | 604 606
    66. Boniface III (b. Rome) | 607 607
    67. St. Boniface IV (b. Marsi) | 608 615
    68. St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (b. Rome) | 615 618
    69. Boniface V (b. Naples) | 619 625
    70. Honorius I (b. Campania) | 625 638
    71. Severinus (b. Rome) | 640 640
    72. John IV (b. Dalmatia) | 640 642
    73. Theodore I (b. Greece) | 642 649
    74. St. Martin I (b. Todi) | 649 655
    75. St. Eugene I (b. Rome) | 654 657
    76. St. Vitalian (b. Segni) | 657 672
    77. Adeodatus II (b. Rome) | 672 676
    78. Donus (b. Rome) | 676 678
    79. St. Agatho (b. Sicily) | 678 681
    80. St. Leo II (b. Sicily) | 682 683
    81. St. Benedict II (b. Rome) | 684 685
    82. John V (b. Syria) | 685 686
    83. Conon (Unknown) | 686 687
    84. St. Sergius I (b. Syria) | 687 701
    85. John VI (b. Greece) | 701 705
    86. John VII (b. Greece) | 705 707
    87. Sisinnius (b. Syria) | 708 708
    88. Constantine (b. Syria) | 708 715
    89. St. Gregory II (b. Rome) | 715 731
    90. St. Gregory III (b. Syria) | 731 741
    91. St. Zachary (b. Greece) | 741 752
    92. Stephen II (III) (b. Rome) | 752 757
    93. St. Paul I (b. Rome) | 757 767
    94. Stephen III (IV) (b. Sicily) | 768 772
    95. Adrian I (b. Rome) | 772 795
    96. St. Leo III (b. Rome) | 795 816
    97. Stephen IV (V) (b. Rome) | 816 817
    98. St. Paschal I (b. Rome) | 817 824
    99. Eugene II (b. Rome) | 824 827
    100. Valentine (b. Rome) | 827 827
    101. Gregory IV (b. Rome) | 827 844
    102. Sergius II (b. Rome) | 844 847
    103. St. Leo IV (b. Rome) | 847 855
    104. Benedict III (b. Rome) | 855 858
    105. St. Nicholas I (the Great) (b. Rome) | 858 867
    106. Adrian II (b. Rome) | 867 872
    107. John VIII (b. Rome) | 872 882
    108. Marinus I (b. Gallese) | 882 884
    109. St. Adrian III (b. Rome) | 884 885
    110. Stephen V (VI) (b. Rome) | 885 891
    111. Formosus (b. Portus) | 891 896
    112. Boniface VI (b. Rome) | 896 896
    113. Stephen VI (VII) (b. Rome) | 896 897
    114. Romanus (b. Gallese) | 897 897
    115. Theodore II (b. Rome) | 897 897
    116. John IX (b. Tivoli) | 898 900
    117. Benedict IV (b. Rome) | 900 903
    118. Leo V (b. Ardea) | 903 903
    119. Sergius III (b. Rome) | 904 911
    120. Anastasius III (b. Rome) | 911 913
    121. Landus (b. Sabina) | 913 914
    122. John X (b. Tossignano) | 914 928
    123. Leo VI (b. Rome) | 928 928
    124. Stephen VII (VIII) (b. Rome) | 928 931
    125. John XI (b. Rome) | 931 935
    126. Leo VII (b. Rome) | 936 939
    127. Stephen VIII (IX) (b. Rome) | 939 942
    128. Marinus II (b. Rome) | 942 946
    129. Agapitus II (b. Rome) | 946 955
    130. John XII (b. Tusculum) | 955 964
    131. Leo VIII5 (b. Rome) | 963 965
    132. Benedict V5 (b. Rome) | 964 966
    133. John XIII (b. Rome) | 965 972
    134. Benedict VI (b. Rome) | 973 974
    135. Benedict VII (b. Rome) | 974 983
    136. John XIV (b. Pavia) | 983 984
    137. John XV (b. Rome) | 985 996
    138. Gregory V (b. Saxony) | 996 999
    139. Sylvester II (b. Auvergne) | 999 1003
    140. John XVII (b. Rome) | 1003 1003
    141. John XVIII (b. Rome) | 1004 1009
    142. Sergius IV (b. Rome) | 1009 1012
    143. Benedict VIII (b. Tusculum) | 1012 1024
    144. John XIX (b. Tusculum) | 1024 1032
    145. Benedict IX6 (b. Tusculum) | 1032 1044
    146. Sylvester III (b. Rome) | 1045 1045
    147. Benedict IX (2nd time) (b. Tusculum) | 1045 1045
    148. Gregory VI (b. Rome) | 1045 1046
    149. Clement II (b. Saxony) | 1046 1047
    150. Benedict IX (3rd time) (b. Tusculum) | 1047 1048
    151. Damasus II (b. Bavaria) | 1048 1048
    152. St. Leo IX (b. Alsace) | 1049 1054
    153. Victor II (b. Germany) | 1055 1057
    154. Stephen IX (X) (b. Lorraine) | 1057 1058
    155. Nicholas II (b. Burgundy) | 1059 1061
    156. Alexander II (b. Milan) | 1061 1073
    157. St. Gregory VII (b. Tuscany) | 1073 1085
    158. Bl. Victor III (b. Benevento) | 1086 1087
    159. Bl. Urban II (b. France) | 1088 1099
    160. Paschal II (b. Ravenna) | 1099 1118
    161. Gelasius II (b. Gaeta) | 1118 1119
    162. Callistus II (b. Burgundy) | 1119 1124
    163. Honorius II (b. Flagnano) | 1124 1130
    164. Innocent II (b. Rome) | 1130 1143
    165. Celestine II (b. Cittą di Castello) | 1143 1144
    166. Lucius II (b. Bologna) | 1144 1145
    167. Bl. Eugene III (b. Pisa) | 1145 1153
    168. Anastasius IV (b. Rome) | 1153 1154
    169. Adrian IV (b. England) | 1154 1159
    170. Alexander III (b. Siena) | 1159 1181
    171. Lucius III (b. Lucca) | 1181 1185
    172. Urban III (b. Milan) | 1185 1187
    173. Gregory VIII (b. Benevento) | 1187 1187
    174. Clement III (b. Rome) | 1187 1191
    175. Celestine III (b. Rome) | 1191 1198
    176. Innocent III (b. Anagni) | 1198 1216
    177. Honorius III (b. Rome) | 1216 1227
    178. Gregory IX (b. Anagni) | 1227 1241
    179. Celestine IV (b. Milan) | 1241 1241
    180. Innocent IV (b. Genoa) | 1243 1254
    181. Alexander IV (b. Anagni) | 1254 1261
    182. Urban IV (b. Troyes) | 1261 1264
    183. Clement IV (b. France) | 1265 1268
    184. Bl. Gregory X (b. Piacenza) | 1271 1276
    185. Bl. Innocent V (b. Savoy) | 1276 1276
    186. Adrian V (b. Genoa) | 1276 1276
    187. John XXI7 (b. Portugal) | 1276 1277
    188. Nicholas III (b. Rome) | 1277 1280
    189. Martin IV (b. France) | 1281 1285
    190. Honorius IV (b. Rome) | 1285 1287
    191. Nicholas IV (b. Ascoli) | 1288 1292
    192. St. Celestine V (b. Isernia) | 1294 1294
    193. Boniface VIII (b. Anagni) | 1294 1303
    194. Bl. Benedict XI (b. Treviso) | 1303 1304
    195. Clement V (b. France) | 1305 1314
    196. John XXII (b. Cahors) | 1316 1334
    197. Benedict XII (b. France) | 1334 1342
    198. Clement VI (b. France) | 1342 1352
    199. Innocent VI (b. France) | 1352 1362
    200. Bl. Urban V (b. France) | 1362 1370
    201. Gregory XI (b. France) | 1370 1378
    202. Urban VI (b. Naples) | 1378 1389
    203. Boniface IX (b. Naples) | 1389 1404
    204. Innocent VII (b. Sulmona) | 1404 1406
    205. Gregory XII (b. Venice) | 1406 1415
    206. Martin V (b. Rome) | 1417 1431
    207. Eugene IV (b. Venice) | 1431 1447
    208. Nicholas V (b. Sarzana) | 1447 1455
    209. Callistus III (b. Jativa) | 1455 1458
    210. Pius II (b. Siena) | 1458 1464
    211. Paul II (b. Venice) | 1464 1471
    212. Sixtus IV (b. Savona) | 1471 1484
    213. Innocent VIII (b. Genoa) | 1484 1492
    214. Alexander VI (b. Jativa) | 1492 1503
    215. Pius III (b. Siena) | 1503 1503
    216. Julius II (b. Savona) | 1503 1513
    217. Leo X (b. Florence) | 1513 1521
    218. Adrian VI (b. Utrecht) | 1522 1523
    219. Clement VII (b. Florence) | 1523 1534
    220. Paul III (b. Rome) | 1534 1549
    221. Julius III (b. Rome) | 1550 1555
    222. Marcellus II (b. Montepulciano) | 1555 1555
    223. Paul IV (b. Naples) | 1555 1559
    224. Pius IV (b. Milan) | 1559 1565
    225. St. Pius V (b. Bosco) | 1566 1572
    226. Gregory XIII (b. Bologna) | 1572 1585
    227. Sixtus V (b. Grottammare) | 1585 1590
    228. Urban VII (b. Rome) | 1590 1590
    229. Gregory XIV (b. Cremona) | 1590 1591
    230. Innocent IX (b. Bologna) | 1591 1591
    231. Clement VIII (b. Florence) | 1592 1605
    232. Leo XI (b. Florence) | 1605 1605
    233. Paul V (b. Rome) | 1605 1621
    234. Gregory XV (b. Bologna) | 1621 1623
    235. Urban VIII (b. Florence) | 1623 1644
    236. Innocent X (b. Rome) | 1644 1655
    237. Alexander VII (b. Siena) | 1655 1667
    238. Clement IX (b. Pistoia) | 1667 1669
    239. Clement X (b. Rome) | 1670 1676
    240. Bl. Innocent XI (b. Como) | 1676 1689
    241. Alexander VIII (b. Venice) | 1689 1691
    242. Innocent XII (b. Spinazzola) | 1691 1700
    243. Clement XI (b. Urbino) | 1700 1721
    244. Innocent XIII (b. Rome) | 1721 1724
    245. Benedict XIII (b. Gravina) | 1724 1730
    246. Clement XII (b. Florence) | 1730 1740
    247. Benedict XIV (b. Bologna) | 1740 1758
    248. Clement XIII (b. Venice) | 1758 1769
    249. Clement XIV (b. Rimini) | 1769 1774
    250. Pius VI (b. Cesena) | 1775 1799
    251. Pius VII (b. Cesena) | 1800 1823
    252. Leo XII (b. Genga) | 1823 1829
    253. Pius VIII (b. Cingoli) | 1829 1830
    254. Gregory XVI (b. Belluno) | 1831 1846
    255. Pius IX (b. Senegallia) | 1846 1878
    256. Leo XIII (b. Carpineto) | 1878 1903
    257. St. Pius X (b. Riese) | 1903 1914
    258. Benedict XV (b. Genoa) | 1914 1922
    259. Pius XI (b. Desio) | 1922 1939
    260. Pius XII (b. Rome) | 1939 1958
    261. John XXIII (b. Sotto il Monte) | 1958 1963
    262. Paul VI (b. Concesio) | 1963 1978
    263. John Paul I (b. Forno di Canale) | 1978 1978
    264. John Paul II (b. Wadowice, Poland) | 1978 2005
    265. Benedict XVI (b. Marktl, Bavaria, Germany) | 2005

the pope
Statue of St. Peter




____________________________________________________________________________

Vatican City | History


vatican

St. Peter's Basicila

vatican

St. Peter's, Vatican City
Vatican City


    History | Vatican

      It is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome (the ager vaticanus) had always been considered sacred, even before the arrival of Christianity.

vatican

    In 326 the first church was built on the supposed site of the tomb of Saint Peter, and from then on the area started to become more populated.

    Popes in their secular role gradually extended their control over neighbouring regions and through the Papal States ruled a large portion of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century, when most of the territory of the Papal States was seized by the newly united Kingdom of Italy.

    In 1870, the Pope's holdings were further circumscribed when Rome itself was annexed. Disputes between a series of "prisoner" popes and Italy were resolved on February 11, 1929 by three Lateran treaties, which established the independent state of the Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy. In 1984, a new concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain provisions of the earlier treaty, including the primacy of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion.


vatican

Geography

    The Vatican City State is situated on the Vatican hill, on the right bank of the Tiber River, within the city of Rome.


vatican


Government

    The Pope has full legal, executive, and judicial powers. Executive power over the area is in the hands of a commission of cardinals appointed by the pope. The College of Cardinals is the pope's chief advisory body, and upon his death the cardinals elect his successor for life.


vatican

Trivia

    Almost all of the Vatican City's 790 citizens live inside the Vatican's walls. The Vatican includes high dignitaries, priests, nuns, and guards as well as about 3,000 lay workers who comprise the majority of the work force.

    The term "Holy See" refers to the composite of the authority, jurisdiction, and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his advisers to direct the worldwide Roman Catholic Church. As the "central government" of the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy See has a legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic representatives.

    The Holy See has formal diplomatic relations with 174 nations, including the United States and many predominantly Muslim countries. The Holy See also maintains relations of a special nature with the Russian Federation and the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine.

    Created in 1929 to provide a territorial identity for the Holy See in Rome, the State of the Vatican City is a recognized national territory under international law. The Holy See, however, enters into international agreements and receives and sends diplomatic representatives.

    The Pope delegates the internal administration of the Vatican City to the Pontifical Commission for the State of the Vatican City. The Vatican City maintains the Swiss Guards, a voluntary military force, as well as a modern security corps. It has its own post office, commissary, bank, railway station, electrical generating plant, and publishing house. The Vatican also issues its own coins, stamps and internet domain www.vatican.va.

    Radio Vatican, the official radio station, is one of the most influential in Europe. L'Osservatore Romano is the semi-official newspaper, published daily in Italian, and weekly in English, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and French (plus a monthly edition in Polish). It is published by Catholic laymen but carries official information.

    The Pope rules the Holy See through the Roman Curia and the Papal Civil Service. The Roman Curia consists of the Secretariat of State, nine Congregations, three Tribunals, 11 Pontifical Councils, and a complex of offices that administer church affairs at the highest level.

    The Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State, directs and coordinates the Curia. The current incumbent, Angelo Cardinal Sodano, is the Holy See's equivalent of a prime minister. Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo, Secretary of the Section for Relations With States of the Secretariat of State is the Vatican's foreign minister.

    Among the most active of the major Curial institutions are the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which oversees church doctrine; the Congregation for Bishops, which coordinates the appointment of bishops worldwide; the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, which oversees all missionary activities; and the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, which deals with international peace and social issues.

    Three tribunals are responsible for judicial power. The Apostolic Penitentiary deals with matters of conscience; the Roman Rota is responsible for appeals, including annulments of marriage; and the Apostolic Signatura is the final court of appeal.

    The Prefecture for Economic Affairs coordinates the finances of the Holy See departments and supervises the administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, an investment fund dating back to the Lateran Pacts. A committee of 15 cardinals, chaired by the Secretary of State, has final oversight authority over all financial matters of the Holy See, including those of the Institute for Works of Religion, the Vatican bank.


    vatican

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